Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR)

This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), including 158 formerly obese participants, who succeeded to lose weight at least 10% and maintaining it for at least two years. Self-reported information was collected through electronic forms.

Results:

Lifestyle-related factors associated with successful weight loss.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Short-term weight loss is often successful, but the obtained results are difficult to maintain. Therefore, a study focusing on obese people who successfully lost weight, with special emphasis upon methods applied and background factors, is of major importance.

METHODS/SUBJECTS:
This study was based upon a web-based questionnaire, which the participants filled in after registration. Altogether 316 people were recruited through articles in newspapers all over Finland, and of them 184 met the inclusion criteria: age 18-60 years, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) before weight loss, a weight loss of at least 10%, and maintaining it for a minimum of 2 years.

RESULTS:
A total of 158 participants (100 women and 58 men) were included in the final analyses. The mean age was 44.5 years, average BMI before weight loss 35.9 kg/m(2) and after weight loss 26.1 kg/m(2), average weight loss was 26.5% or 32.4 kg. Compared with the general Finnish population the participants smoked less (P =0.009), used less alcohol (P ≤ 0.001), and were physically more active (P ≤ 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

People who were successful in long-term weight loss have a much healthier lifestyle than the general Finnish population. Increased physical activity seems to be a major determinant of successful long-term results.

KEYWORDS:
Body mass index; long-term weight loss; obesity; successful weight loss

Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view.

METHODS/SUBJECTS:
This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss.

RESULTS:
Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model.

CONCLUSIONS:
Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.

KEYWORDS:
Diet; eating habits; long-term weight loss; meal frequency; weighing; weight gain; weight maintenance

Long-term Weight Maintenance after Successful Weight Loss: Motivational Factors, Support, Difficulties, and Success Factors.

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The main aims of this study were to assess motivational factors for weight loss, and support and difficulties during the weight loss and weight maintenance phase.

METHODS:
This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), including 158 formerly obese persons, who lost at least 10% of their initial weight and maintained it for at least 2 years. Data have been collected through electronic forms.

RESULTS:
The 2 most commonly reported motivational factors for weight loss were health- and appearance- related factors. Women reported dissatisfaction with their body more commonly than men (p = .023), whereas men reported health-related reasons (p = .008) more often. The majority (58%) reported losing weight alone, without any outside support, men more commonly than women (p = .006). Persons reported fewer difficulties during the maintenance than during the weight loss phase.

CONCLUSIONS:
Various motivational factors for losing weight may lead to successful weight loss and long-term weight maintenance. Marked sex differences were reported in relation to difficulties and need for support.

Personality Traits Associated with Weight Maintenance among Successful Weight Losers.

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
The influence of personality traits on successful weight loss has been studied previously with conflicting findings. Much less is known about the influence of personality traits on weight maintenance after weight loss. The aims of this study were to assess how personality traits were associated with motivational factors, dietary habits, self-weighing frequency, need for support, and difficulties encountered during the weight loss process in formerly successful weight maintainers.

METHODS:
This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry, including 158 (100 women and 58 men, age 18-60 years) formerly obese participants with ≥10% weight loss and who maintained it ≥ 2 years. Data were collected through electronic forms and personality traits were assessed according to the Five Factor Model with the Finnish version of the Ten Item Personality Inventory.

RESULTS:
Personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with motivational factors, self-weighing frequency, dietary habits, support, and difficulties during the weight loss process. Sex differences were observed.

CONCLUSIONS:
Personality traits may be important in successful long-term weight maintenance after weight loss. Our results might not be generalizable in other populations because only Caucasians were included. The small sample size needs to be considered.